#5 – Law – The Basic Assignment

In this assignment, I choose the basic assignment, and I will talk about the legal status of autonomous vehicles and survey the challenges facing the legal framework and regulation of autonomous vehicles and issues with liability.

The legal status of autonomous vehicles

Recently, The German Federal Senate voted to pass the country’s first law on automatic driving, which allows automatic driving to replace human driving under certain conditions. This is the first time that automatic driving has introduced into the effective road traffic regulations all over the world. With the development of technology, the legal status of autonomous vehicles.

The challenges facing the legal framework

The law isn’t provided driver easily, but a set of regulations and decrees, which determines what happens when you encounter a specific situation. For autonomous vehicles, most of the law aren’t enacted, and we should be careful when we try to deal with terms. If the law is too strict for autonomous vehicles, the manufacturer of autonomous vehicles may give up this area, and it will impede the develop of technology. On the other hand, if the law is too easy, the manufacturer of autonomous vehicles may pay less attention to the safe. So, we should find a balance between the two extremes.

The challenges facing the regulation of autonomous vehicles

In my opinion, the regulation of autonomous vehicles isn’t only regulating the manufacturer of autonomous vehicles, but also the auto repair shop which provide maintenance and Software upgrades. Most of the manufacturer of autonomous vehicles are supervised by various of institutions, their products will pass various of tests before MP (Mass Production). However, the regulation of auto repair shop is less than the manufacturer of autonomous vehicles, so, they may make more profit by decreasing the quality of part.

The challenges facing the issues with liability

This is a so difficult problem in every traffic accident. So many factors such as the manufacturer of autonomous vehicles and the auto repair shop and driver and so on should be considered. However, I insist that the manufacturer of autonomous vehicles doesn’t assumed liabilities once their product has passed the tests of regulator and can be proved that there is no quality problem.

The Summary of The Personality Assessment From ITP Metrics

Today, I have finished my assessment, and I get 5 moderates in my personality report. Then I will introduce my summary of the personality report in 5 parts.

Before the introduction, I will introduce myself briefly in order that you can say hi to me in Calgary immediately.

2016-05-17 090125

I’m Qun Zhang, come from Huangshan, China. I’m also a student of CUIT(Chengdu University of Information Technology). And I major in Electronic and Communication Engineering.

In extraversion part, the summary show that I get a High in friendliness and others are Moderate. As it shows, I’m good at making friends and communicating with others. It also piont out that I should avoid the stress.  I will spend more time to relax.

In emotionality part, I get 2 Low that anxiety and frustratuion, and others are Moderate. The report shows that I should focus on engaging in debate and discussions rather than avoid all disagreements. I believe I will sharing my idea actively and express my opinion clearly.

In conscientious part, I get 6 Moderate. this report suggest me that try to make a task list for each hours and stick to it. I think it is a good method to avoid procrastination. On the other hand, I will keep my self-confident.

In agreeableness part, I’m very amazed that I get 2 Low in Morality and Sympathy. The report remind me that unethical behavior will negatively impact you and your team’s success. Try to be authentic and genuine. I feel I was misunderstood, I don’t kown why it happened, maybe I had misunderstood the question. I’m so sad due to this result, because I’m sure that whatever I do to succeed are lawful, moral and authentic.

In openness part, the liberalism is highest, I’m proud of it. I hope I can keep opening to liberal ideologies.

The Thought About A Car Accident

As we know, This is a special accident because Carlos is badly hurt by a autonomous vehicle. So, How should we divide up the responsibility for Carlos’ injury?

In this accident, My viewpoint overview are as follows.

Frist, for the autonomous vehicle manufacturer , if the aggressive setting(s) is lawful and the autonomous vehicle didn’t any quality problem, the autonomous vehicle manufacturer is irresponsibility.

Second, Bob is also irresponsibility, if he had reminded the risk of aggressive setting(s). Bob is a car salesman, he has duty to inform his customers of the risk of the autonomous vehicle.

Third, Alice has to be responsible for this accident. On a dark and wet road, she known  the aggressive setting(s) can’t use in this weather condition. So, her wrong choice is one of  the important cause of car accident.

Fourth, Carlos also has to be responsible for this accident. He didn’t observe traffic regulations, so he was in the road when he shouldn’t have been.

From this car accident, I have some advice for the autonomous vehicle manufacturer.

We can make our autonomous vehicles more intelligent. For example, We can forbid the aggressive setting(s), if our sensors got some information which shows that weather was terrible. And We can limit driver’s choice in different environments. thanks to the development of sensors such as Lidar and radar, we can perceive our environment accuratly.

I also have some advice for the regulators of AVs. They has important the responsibility of regulatory. So, I think establishing an annual inspection mechanism is necessary. Not only do we have to test car parts, but also versions of test software to make sure our software is the most effective and accurate.

Last, For the owner of AVs, I want to remind them that you must pay more attention to car’s condition.  The status of sensors is very important,  you should keep the sensors in good repair.



Technology In Autonomous Vehicles

1.  Technology that may be found in autonomous vehicles



Lidar is the master of 3D mapping. Lidar, short for light detection and ranging, is a technology that measures distance using laser light.



1.2 Cameras

Cameras are the master of classification and texture interpretation. Unlike both lidar and radar, cameras can see color, making them the best for scene interpretation.



1.3 Radar

Radar is the master of motion measurement. Radar, short for radio detection and ranging, is a sensor system that uses radio waves to determine the velocity, range and angle of objects.




2. Radar


2.1 Use

Radar is used for determining the velocity, range and angle of objects by radio waves.

Many radar which was used for autonomous vehicles  use a pulse-Doppler approach. We can get the velocity from the Doppler Frequency and the range from the time of receive. The angle can be read in servo system.

As we know, Tesla detect the vehicles by millimeter-wave radar. The frequency of 77GHz is used for long distance and the frequency of 24GHz is used for short distance. people always use 1 radar which work in 77GHz and 4 radars which work in 24GHz in one car.

2.2 Benefits and Drawbacks

2.2.1 Benefits

Radar is a only one sensor which can work all-weather in autonomous vehicles. Compared with camera and Lidar. Radar is computationally lighter than a camera and uses far less data than a Lidar. Radar can work in every condition and even use reflection to see behind obstacles.

2.2.2 Drawbacks

Radar have blind zones, and have lots of interference such as weather. Radar is less angularly accurate than lidar. Some radar which work in 77GHz can not detect foot passengers.

2.3 The Future of Radar

In general, the cost of millimeter-wave radar will decrease quickly because  the technology  is not difficult and expensive. In my opinion, With the development of DSP(Digital Signal Processing), MSIF(Multi-sensor Information Fusion) will come in.





An Introduction To The World Of Autonomous Vehicles

1. Standard

With the goal of providing common terminology for automated driving,  SAE International’s new standard J3016:

Level 0(No Automation): Automated system issues warnings but has no vehicle control.

Level 1(Driver Assistance): Driver and automated system shares control over the vehicle.

Level 2(Partial Automation): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering).

Level 3(Conditional Automation):  The driver can safely turn their attention away from the driving tasks.

Level 4(High Automation): the driving mode-specific performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task, even if a human driver does not respond appropriately to a request to intervene.

Level 5(Full Automation): No human intervention is required.


2. Examples

The example of autonomous vehicles are Tesla Autopilot and Waymo.

First, the Tesla Autopilot comes from Tesla. This car can act autonomously but requires the full attention of the driver, who must be prepared to take control at a moment’s notice. Autopilot should be used only on limited-access highways, and sometimes it will fail to detect lane markings and disengage itself. In urban driving the system will not read traffic signals or obey stop signs. The system also does not detect pedestrians or cyclists.


Second, Waymo comes from Google. This car find other vehicles by cameras, radar sensors and laser rangefinder and the navigation by detailed maps.


About the test of autonomous car :

Tesla(Tesla Autopilot) – although capable of fully autonomous travel on highways and many urban situations, the manufacturer requires the human driver to remain alert and ready to take over at any moment.

Google (Waymo)- these cars are tested primarily in suburban neighborhoods at slow speeds and run automatically less than 80% of their time. The test driver takes over 20% of the time.

3. Classification

3.1 Tesla – level 2

Reason : This car can act autonomously but requires the full attention of the driver, who must be prepared to take control at a moment’s notice.

3.2 Waymo – level 5

Reason : According to the new prototype of Waymo, It is no steering wheel, gas pedal or brake pedal. So, I think Waymo will be fully autonomous.

4. Applications

4.1 Google Map

It has complete the information of roads and Real Time Traffic. It can help the computer to get the optimization of route.

4.2 Weather Channel

We can read the information about weather in this application.

4.3 ITunes

For passengers, entertainment is a very important part in the experience of riding. ITunes is the best way to organize and enjoy the music, movies, and TV shows.